The influence of the Ancient World can be traced in many cultures of the world.
Being part of the ancient culture, Roman culture had a number of common features with the culture of Ancient Greece. This was facilitated by the fact that in its heyday Ancient Rome annexed Greece. But despite the fact that many features of Roman culture were borrowed from older cultures, the culture of Rome brought a lot of its own, it has a certain identity and uniqueness, something that makes it so important for the whole world culture.
The formation of the culture of Ancient Rome took place in several stages, mainly associated with the historical and political changes that took place on the territory of Roman civilization. The conditional division according to the stages of development of ancient Roman culture is as follows:
1) the period of Etruscan culture;
2) the royal period;
3) Republic period:
- a) an early republic;
- b) a late republic;
4) the period of the empire:
5) early empire;
6) a late empire.
It is impossible to consider these stages as unrelated time intervals. On the contrary, the interrelation of these periods is reflected in the transfer of accumulated knowledge and experience from generation to generation.
Let’s consider each stage separately and in interrelation with the subsequent periods.
The name of this stage in the development of Roman culture comes from the name of the civilization that was formed on the Apennine peninsula. The appearance of Etruscan civilization refers to the first millennium before the new era. At this time in the territory of ancient Rome, the first city-states appear, which are united in a federation.
The Etruscans had a very developed culture. Especially it was related to architecture. Archaeological research showed that the architecture of Etruscan cities was specific. For the layout of city streets, extreme clarity, geometric consistency of shapes, orientation of buildings in accordance with the sides of the world was very characteristic.
Another architectural merit of Etruscan culture is the appearance of buildings with a dome vault.
The importance of the Etruscans is also great for the world of writing. It is in the Etruscan period that the Latin alphabet appears, which, as is well known, was very widespread, and in the Middle Ages and New Times was generally considered compulsory for any educated person. Even in the modern world, although it was no longer used as a colloquial language by the 9th century, it is used in medicine, biology, other sciences close to them, and even in jurisprudence, Latin letters for various designations in physics, mathematics, etc. are widely used.
Roman numerals invented back in the days of Etruscan civilization are widely used today.
The Etruscan arts have reached great heights. Magnificent works of art were ceramics, especially lacquered in such a way as to imitate the metal surface.
Archaeologists have discovered wonderful jewelry, jewelry, bronze sculptures and terracotta, indicating a high level of then-master craftsmen.
The opinion on the perfection of the Roman portrait was significantly influenced by Etruscan painting with its desire for realism. There was no custom of the ancient centuries of idealization, works of fine art were passed on as it is.
The religious beliefs of the Etruscans were significantly influenced by the beliefs of Ancient Greece. Etruscan culture adopted the Greek pantheon of the gods, although worship was not widespread enough, and in religion of great importance were all kinds of divinations and interpretations of various phenomena occurring.
Having absorbed the various cultural achievements of neighboring states, the Etruscan civilization itself was the creator of its culture, which was spread and adopted by other civilizations.
Etruscan civilization as an independent existed until the fifth century to a new era. Gradually, she lost her possessions as a result of invasions from neighboring territories. And already by the third century before the new era, Etruscan civilization was completely subdued by the city of Rome that appeared on the territory of the Apennine peninsula. This event marked the end of Etruscan culture and the beginning of a new cultural stage – the royal period.